Yintoni iBlockchain?

IBlockchain yi ibhlokochain. Beka njalo, ayivakali ngathi ininzi. Nangona kunjalo, sisiseko sobuchwephesha esivumele oku kuphazamiseka kubomi babantu boqoqosho: ukwenziwa kwemali ezisasazwayo zombane ezinje nge Bitcoin. Uninzi lwezinto ezinomdla zeBitcoin kunye nezinye iimali ezininzi eziye zenziwa ngokuphuculwa kunye nokwahluka kwekhowudi yeBitcoin ngenxa yeBlockchain. I-blockchain yayiyilwe nguSatoshi Nakamoto, umphuhlisi okanye abaphuhlisi abaliqela abangaziwayo abayile njengesiseko seBitcoin. Njengomthombo ovulekileyo, nabani na angayibona loo khowudi, ayisebenzise okanye ayiguqule ngendlela enokuthi yenziwe nezinye izinto ezininzi ezivela kolu luvo lusisiseko. Namhlanje, le ngcamango iqala nje ukuvelisa ukuqhuma kweengcamango zokuyila eziza kutshintsha umhlaba ngeendlela ezininzi. Ukusukela ngo-2008, iBitcoin Blockchain isebenza ngaphandle kokusilela..

Ukuqonda ukuba yintoni, masiqale ngokuthathela ingqalelo ukuba ibhloko siseti yee-byte ezingabhalwa kuyo izinto. Nje ukuba ikhowudi yemali eyabelweyo iphunyezwe, iikhompyuter zisasazwa kwihlabathi liphela ziqala ukuvelisa iibhloko okanye izikhongozeli ezikhethekileyo. Kwimeko yeBitcoin, ikhompyuter ivelisa ibhloko ngalo lonke ixesha isombulula ingxaki ye-cryptographic (ngalo lonke ixesha isombulula ingxaki yezibalo). Okungakumbi okanye okuncinci, ngamathuba, ibhloko iya kwenziwa yonke imizuzu eli-10. Zonke iikhompyuter ezithatha inxaxheba kule nethiwekhi kufuneka ziqinisekise le bhloko. Ukuba bekungenjalo, ngekhe yamkelwe kwiBlockchain.

Unokubona ngeso lengqondo ibhloko njengemoto kaloliwe. Eli bhlokhi liqulathe inani elithile leemali ezintsha okanye iBitcoin. Ikwaphethe amanqaku eengxelo zentengiselwano ezenziweyo kwixesha elidlulileyo phakathi kokudalwa kwebhlokhi yangaphambili nale intsha. Njengoko benditshilo, zonke iikhompyuter ezixhume kule nethiwekhi inkulu, zibizwa ngokuba ziindawo, kufuneka zivume ukuba zombini ibhloko kunye neerekhodi zobalo eziqulathe zona ziyasebenza.

Iingqekembe zemali ezintsha ezenziweyo zezekhompyuter ezisombulule ingxaki zaza zadala ibhloko. Ewe, ikhompyuter ayikhathalelanga oku kodwa hayi kumniniyo. Eli nyathelo lokusombulula ingxaki ngokusebenzisa amandla okubala kunye nokwenza ibhloko elitsha libizwa ngokuba yimigodi.. Igama livela kufana nesenzo sokutyumza ilitye emgodini ukukhupha igolide. Emva kokusebenza nzima, ikhompyuter iyakwazi ukusombulula ingxaki ye-cryptographic kunye nokwenza ibhloko. Njengomvuzo, uthatha iBitcoin enxulunyaniswa naloo bhlokhi kwaye ngokungafanelekanga ubeka enqwelweni (ibhloko) amanqaku akho konke ukuthengiselana kwiBitcoin okwenziwe ngelixa "esusa ilitye." Ke yonke into ihamba njengoko kufanelekile kwaye yonke into isebenza ngokufanelekileyo.

Le ndlela yokudala iimali ezintsha kunye nokuhambisa ukuthengiselana okuya kurekhodwa ngonaphakade kwiBlockchain ibizwa ngokuba yi "Proof of Work" (PoW-Proof of Work). Zininzi ezinye iinkqubo eziye zayilwa kamva kwaye zisebenzisa ezinye iimali. I-PoW inezibonelelo zayo kunye nokungalunganga kodwa le yindlela esebenza ngayo iBitcoin kwaye iseyindlela yokuyila nekhuselekileyo yokwenza izinto.

Yeyiphi inkuthazo yokuqala kwendlela kwiBlockchain?

IiNode ngoomatshini abazinikeleyo, iikhompyuter okanye iiseva eziqulethe ikopi yonke yeBlockchain. Ukongeza, kuxhomekeke kwindlela iBlockchain esebenza ngayo, bahlala benza iibhloko ezintsha ukuhambisa idatha. Yintoni egcina abantu abaninzi kangaka benomdla wokufumana indawo kunye nokusebenza? Ngokucacileyo, izibonelelo. Kwimeko yeBitcoin, inkcitho yamandla iyaqwalaselwa. Njengoko leBlockchain ikhulelwe, ukwanda kwamandla okubala kuyadingeka ukwenza iibhloko ezintsha. Kodwa Ngalo lonke ixesha ibhloko entsha isenziwa, iBitcoin entsha iyenziwa nayo kwaye lowo ngumvuzo kuye nakubani na oqhuba loo node. Ukudalwa kweBitcoin entsha kunqunyelwe ngexesha kuba ngokwekhowudi yayo kuphela i-21 yezigidi ze-Bitcoin ziya kwenziwa. Kuza kwenzeka ntoni xa zonke zidaliwe? Ewe, oko kuyakwenzeka ixesha elide kuba ubunzima buyanda kwaye amaxesha ngamaxesha inani leBitcoin entsha eyenziweyo kwibhloko nganye lincinci. Ngokunokwenzeka malunga nonyaka wama-2100 elo nani liya kufikelelwa. Kodwa, ke, mhlawumbi, kuyakubakho abantu abaninzi abasebenzisa i-Bitcoin (kukucinga) kwaye intengiselwano nganye inekhomishini ehambelana nayo, ekwasala "ngabavukuzi" abaza kuqhubeka nokwenza iibhloko (akukho Bitcoin intsha) icandelo eliyimfuneko kuyo yonke into ukuze liqhubeke nokusebenza ngokufanelekileyo.

Ewe kunjalo, le ndlela yokwenza iibhloko ezintsha ayisiyiyo kuphela. Ezinye i-cryptocurrensets zisebenzisa ezinye iindlela. Ezinye ii-blockchains zisebenza phantsi kwenkqubo yokubambisana. Kule meko, umdla wabo bagcina iindawo zokuhlala usekwe kwiinjongo ezibekwe luluntu ezisebenzisa imali echaziweyo, njengoko kunjalo FairCoin.

Kwezona zinto zisisiseko IBlockchain ifana nerekhodi yamanqaku ezemali kunye namawakawaka eekopi ezifanayo ezisasazwe kwinethiwekhi yonke. Akukho mntu okanye esinye isiphoso kwezi ngxelo. Ukuba ndizama ukubhala ungeniso lobuxoki, ezinye iindawo ezinekopi yencwadi yonke azizukuyithatha njengefanelekileyo. Ukuba sithatha i-Bitcoin Blockchain, cinga ukuba ndiyayiphazamisa isoftware endiyisebenzisa njengesipaji kwaye ndiyila, yithi, i-Bitcoin eyinyani engama-30. Okwangoku izama ukuzisebenzisa, umzekelo ngokukuthumelela i-Bitcoin engeyiyo, inethiwekhi ayiyi kuyamkela kuba ayiveli nakwezinye iirekhodi. Ke loo ntengiselwano ayiyi kwamkelwa.

Ngoko ke, IBlockchain ikhuselekile ekuhlaselweni kwaye ikhuseleke kakhulu kwaye iyomelela. Akunakwenzeka ukuba uyonakalise idatha yakho ngaphandle kokuba uthathe ulawulo lwazo zonke iindawo, kwindawo esasazwe ngokubanzi iBlockchain, ayinakwenzeka. Kwelinye icala, iBlockchain icace gca kuba wonke umntu unokuzijonga ezi rekhodi. Ngokwendalo, ndibhekisa kwi-blockchain kawonke-wonke, njenge-Bitcon's, kuba iyakwazi ukusebenzisa obu buchwephesha kwicandelo labucala, nangona, kunokwenzeka, ukuba izakuphulukana neempawu zayo ezibalulekileyo ngenxa yobumbano olukhulu oluya kubandakanya .

Ngamafutshane, iBlockchain yinto enamandla amakhulu kuba idatha ehanjiswa rhoqo kwinethiwekhi ayinakulawulwa liziko elinye kwaye ayiniki manqaku abuthathaka.

Ngokusombulula ingxaki yokusetyenziswa gwenxa kwedatha, iirekhodi zinokuthenjwa okanye zithembeke ngakumbi kunokuba i-notary inokuqinisekisa. Kwaye kulapho ke amathuba aqala ukuvela. Umzekelo, ndingabhalisa ukubhala okanye ukubhala incwadi okanye umsebenzi wobugcisa kwaye oku kuya kuhlala kungenakucimeka kuzo zonke iikopi ezisasazwe kwihlabathi liphela ngedatha yam kunye nomhla endibhalise ngawo. Njengoko unokuqonda, oku kungasebenza ukuqinisekisa ukuba ndingumbhali wolo xwebhu. Ukusuka apha, phantse iinkqubo ezingapheliyo zokwenza izinto zinakho kwaye ziyacingelwa (kwaye zenziwe).

I-blockchain yiparadigm entsha yokhuseleko kunye nokwenza izinto elubala

Oovimba beenkcukacha, ngokubanzi, bakhuselwe sisibini somsebenzisi / sephasiwedi. Le ngongoma ebuthathaka kakhulu. IBlockchain ayicacisi loo nto kodwa iyafana ngakumbi neenkqubo zokubethela apho kukho isitshixo sikawonke-wonke kunye nesabucala. Oko kukuthi, kwiBlockchain akukho zirekhodi zithi le mali (le Bitcoin) yeyakho okanye yeyam. Oku kuxhomekeke ekubeni ugcine amaqhosha akho abucala. Iidilesi zeBitcoin zizitshixo zoluntu. Banokwaziwa kuba baya kusebenza kuphela ekunxibelelaniseni iirekhodi (iingqekembe) apho unesitshixo sangasese. Kwi-blockchain, umzekelo, ungabona ukuba ingqekembe ebilapha (kule dilesi) ikhoyo ngoku (kule dilesi). Ezi dilesi zinxulunyaniswa namaqhosha abucala onawo. Ke kuphela nabani na ongumnini wezitshixo zabucala onokuhambisa ezo ngqekembe, uzithumele kwenye idilesi (eyakho okanye eyomnye umntu).

Kodwa masingahlali sodwa ekudluliseni iingqekembe ukusuka kwenye indawo ukuya kwenye

Ndithe iBlockchain injengololiwe ozibandakanya neenqwelo ngokungenammiselo. Ewe iinqwelo zinokuhambisa iirekhodi zobalo ezibonisa ukuba yeyiphi na ingqekembe eyenziweyo ukusukela ekuqaleni kwexesha. Kodwa kutheni uzikhawulela ekuhambiseni iirekhodi zobalo malunga neengqekembe? Njani malunga nokuhambisa iikhontrakthi ezifanelekileyo?

Isivumelwano esiliqhekeza sisiqwenga sekhowudi esinokufakwa kwiBlockchain. Ngokusisiseko loo khowudi ithi xa iimeko ezithile zidibene, le enye iya kwenziwa. Umzekelo, iidilesi zezipaji zabantu abathathe inxaxheba kumbandela wesabelo zinokubhaliswa kwaye xa inkampani ekhuphayo iguqula iirekhodi zenzuzo, isabelo sabo sihanjiswa ngokuzenzekelayo kubanini zabelo. Kubonakala kulula, kodwa njengesiqhelo, ukusuka apho ukucinga kunye nobuchule buqala. Into ephucukileyo kodwa engenzima kangako: uthenga into kwi-intanethi, ubeke intlawulo kwaye inikwa umthengisi kuphela xa isicelo sekhuriya siqinisekisa ukuba iphakheji ihanjisiwe. Kwaye konke oku kuyenzeka ngokuzenzekelayo kubulelwe kwisivumelwano esichithwe kwiBlockchain.

Ukuze ungeze iikhontrakthi ezifanelekileyo kwiBlockchain kwaye uzenze zisebenze, iintlobo ezintsha zeBlockchain zenziwe ukuba, ngokusisiseko, ziyafana neBitcoin yoqobo kodwa zineempawu ezongezelelweyo. IBlockchain yokuqala ekwaziyo ukumilisela iikhontrakthi ezi-smart yile Ethereum.

Kodwa izinto zikhula ngokukhawuleza okukhulu. Namhlanje sele sinazo iibhlokhi ezinokubamba zonke iintlobo zeefayile zedijithali, umzekelo, ezinokukhutshelwa ukuba umsebenzisi wenza intlawulo ekuvunyelwene ngayo, umzekelo Ithala.

Okanye iinethiwekhi zentlalo ezivuza abo babelana ngomxholo onomdla ngakumbi ngokusekwe kwiivoti kunye nezimvo ezifunyenweyo, ezinje nge Steem It.

Khawufane ucinge ukuba unokuqesha yonke indawo yokugcina yekhompyuter oyifunayo kwaye iifayile zakho zigcinwe ngokufihliweyo kwaye zisasazwe zaziingceba kumakhulu eekhompyuter kwihlabathi liphela; kodwa ungafikelela kubo ngokulula okufanayo nokufikelela kwihard drive yekhompyuter yakho. Ilungelo Fascinating? Oku ikhona sele sele sisafanele ukwetyisa iinkcukacha zobuchwephesha kunye nezomthetho.

Ngendlela efanayo, kunokwenzeka ukufumana amandla amakhulu okubala ngokuqesha amaxesha angasebenziyo ee-CPUs zamakhulu okanye amawaka eekhompyuter, enkosi kwiBlockchain esele ikhona Golem, umzekelo.

Nditsho nenkqubo yebhanki yesiko iye yagxininisa kwiBlockchain kwaye baphuhlisa ezabo, ngokusekwe kwithokheni yedijithali Ripples. Yinto elula: ukuthengiselana ngebhanki kubandakanya iindleko ngenxa yeekomishini zebhanki, eziyimfuneko ukuhambisa amanqaku ezemali kwilizwekazi elinye ukuya kwelinye; kwaye bacotha ngokungxamisekileyo. Iibhanki ziye zaqonda ukuba eyabo iBlockchain iya kubavumela ukuba bagcine imali eninzi kunye neengxaki. Ugcino mhlawumbi alunakonwatyiswa ngabasebenzisi balo, kodwa kuyacaca ukuba baya kulusebenzisa olu lwazi lobuchwephesha.

Iimpawu eziphambili zeBlockchain zivumela ukwenziwa kwezindlu zotshintshiselwano ezisemthethweni, oko kukuthi, ezo ziya kuthi zenze ukuba kutshintshiswane ngokukhuselekileyo kwemali phakathi kwabasebenzisi ngokungaziwayo nangaphandle koncedo lomntu wesithathu.. Kuyenzeka ukuba uqhubeke notshintshiselwano phakathi kweemali ezixabisekileyo ezahlukeneyo kwaye, ke ngoko, sebenzisa ikhonkco leebhloko ezahlukeneyo. Kungekudala amagama afana neNethiwekhi yoMbane kunye nokutshintsha kweatom kuya kuqala ukuvakala njengesiqhelo. Umzekelo wesoftware ekwaziyo ukwenza ukutshintshiselana phakathi kweebhloko ezahlukeneyo ziyafumaneka kwisicelo IBatdex ukusuka kwiQonga leKomodo.

Imikhwa emitsha kwinkxaso-mali yeprojekthi

IBlockchain iyitshintsha ngokupheleleyo indlela esinxibelelana ngayo nezoqoqosho kwaye, ewe, sinikezela ngolawulo lwentando yesininzi. Umzekelo, ngoku uva okuninzi malunga nee-ICO. Nangona siza kusiphuhlisa esi sihloko ixesha elide kumanqaku azayo, ngoku kufanele ukuba kuthiwe yindlela entsha nelula yokuxhasa ngemali iiprojekthi. Ukukhutshwa kwezabelo kuthintelwe kubungakanani bemibutho enamandla ngaphakathi kwesakhelo semigaqo engqongqo. ICO (Unikelo lwemali engabalulekanga) u umnikelo wokuqala wengqekembe Iqukethe ukudala ithokheni yedijithali (imali yedijithali) kwaye uyinike nabani na ofuna ukuyithenga ngenjongo yokuxhasa ngemali iprojekthi enomdla ngakumbi.. Ndibeke "ndicinga" kuba, njengoko benditshilo, akukabikho mizimba ilawula ezi zinikezelo, ikwayindawo yokubhalisela zonke iintlobo zobuqhetseba. Kodwa le yokugqibela ayikuthinteli ukuba isetyenziswe ngokufanelekileyo njengesixa semali okanye imali edibeneyo. Uthenga ezinye zezo ngqekembe ngethemba lokuba iprojekthi esekwe kwi-blockchain eya kuyisebenzisa iya kuphuhla kwaye iphumelele. Ngale ndlela, njengezitokhwe, ezi ngqekembe ziya kuthi zifumane ixabiso elikhulu kwaye ungazithengisa ngaphezulu kakhulu koko ubutyalile. Ewe, le modeli intsha yezemali ayibuleli kuphela iBlockchain kodwa yindlela apho iiprojekthi eziza kusebenzisa obu buchwephesha ngendlela yoyilo kunye nenoveli zihlala zixhaswa ngemali.

Ngaba iBlockchain nganye inxulunyaniswa nemali yedatha yedijithali?

Sihlala sicinga ngeBlockchain kunye neBitcoin, njengesibini esingenakwahlulwa. Kwaye sikwathetha ngeBitcoin njengemali. Imali yekota inxulunyaniswa nemali kwaye oku kuyinyani njengoko imali inokusetyenziswa njengevenkile yexabiso kunye nokudluliselwa kwetrust. Ngamanye amagama, ngokutshintshela ingqekembe sinokuthenga ezinye izinto okanye siqeshe iinkonzo. Kodwa, ngokufanelekileyo, iBitcoin nganye ngumqondiso wedijithali (okanye umqondiso, eligama elisetyenziswa kakhulu apha). Ayinaxabiso ngokwalo kodwa inikwa unikezelo, ibango okanye inzala uluntu olufuna ukuyinika ngalo lonke ixesha. Ngokubanzi, into esiyibizayo, ngaphandle kwepropathi eninzi kwiimeko ezininzi, "imali" ngumqondiso wedijithali osebenza ukuhambisa iBlockchain. Ngalo lonke ixesha siza kuzisa irekhodi kwiBlockchain sazisa enye okanye nangaphezulu amathokheni, njengaxa siqala uhlobo loomatshini. Oko kuya kufana nepetroli kwaye, enyanisweni, ithokheni ekhethekileyo ebizwa ngokuba yiGAS isetyenziswa kwinethiwekhi ye-Ethereum. Izizathu zokuba iBlockchain isebenza ngamathokheni ahlukahlukene kodwa enye yazo ichanekile ukuvuza iindawo ezizilawulayo ngokusesikweni. Okokuba ezi "thokheni" okanye amathokheni asetyenziswa njengemali phantse sisiphumo sendalo.. Ke ngoko, kuqhelekile ukuba iBlockchain isebenze kunye neethokheni kwaye kuyinto eqhelekileyo ukuba ezi tokeni zifumane ixabiso elonyukayo, ngakumbi ukuba zinqabile okanye inani lazo linomda njengoko kusenzeka kwiimeko ezininzi.

Iimpawu zedijithali ziyathengwa zithengiswe, izinto ezixabisekileyo ziye zingaphatheki okanye, ukuba iBlockchain ethile iluncedo ngakumbi okanye ibonelela ngesisombululo kuyilo kwingxaki, ziye zibe zizinto eziyimfuneko kwaye zibandakanywe ngandlela ithile kubomi bemihla ngemihla.

Ikamva leBlockchain

Akunakulinganiswa, ucinga ukuba ngoku konke oku kukwinqanaba lokukhula okukhawulezileyo kunye nobuchule bokuqhushumba. Kusenokwenzeka ukuba nangawuphi na umzuzu into ebhetele yenziwe kodwa, okwangoku yenye yezona zinto ziphazamisayo nezinomdla kwezobuchwephesha benkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Kwaye kungcono ukuba siziqhelanise nayo kakuhle kuba siza kuyifumana nakwiikona ezingalindelekanga. I-Intanethi, abantu kunye nezinto ziya kugqitywa ngokungenakulinganiswa ngokuhambelana nekhonkco yeebhloko.

@zamakangcobo